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A History of God. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. Visitado em 21 de outubro de Visitado em 7 de junho de Angeles, Prometheus Books, New York: Barnes and Noble, Strong Atheism vs. July The Review of Politics 11 3 : — Visitado em 19 de novembro de Visitado em 12 de abril de Visitado em 2 de julho de Visitado em 10 de janeiro de February Department of Philosophy, The University of Texas.
Visitado em 7 de abril de Acessado em maio de  Zdybicka , p. Retrieved on APR Language, Truth and Logic. Acessado em 9 de abril de Gunasekara, The Buddhist Attitude to God.. Grove Press, Pages 51— Visitado em 9 de abril de A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy.
An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. University of Calcutta: Cornell University Press. Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De natura deorum. Comments and English text by Richard D. Thomas Library, Bryn Mawr College, , page 3. Visitado em 2 de abril de SUNY Press. Translated by W. Acessado em 12 de abril de Communist Regimes in Eastern Euand Atheism". An Anthology of Atheism and Rationalism. Acessado em 3 de abril de Revolution and Peace, Stanford University. Inquisition versity Press.
Enlightenment Contested. In: S. Michael ed. Untouchable: University Press, Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Publishers, Visitado em 17 de abril de Edge BBC Worldwide. Visi Baggini, Julian. New Humanist. Simons, Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden. Visitado em 8 de abril de Visitado em 24 de fevereiro de Visitado em 12 de novembro de AcesBureau of Statistics Visitado em 23 de janeiro de sado em 13 de dezembro de Gallup em Sociology Compass 3 6 : — Nature : —4.
PMID Almeida modernity, and how their societies could match the progress that it epitomized. Galiano took issue with the Gothicism that J. Almeida research into the relationship between Romanticism and canon formation in the Hispanophone world. In its belated phase, the picturesque becomes an aesthetic that, in a double movement, erases history from the monuments it frames. These struggles for freedom in the land of Don Quijote and the world of Columbus energized the imaginations of Williams, Wordsworth, Hemans, Byron, Southey, and Coleridge — to name the most prominent Romantic writers who instantiated these geographies through their poetic representation of wars, conquests, and terrible victories.
Yet these appropriations were not by any means one sided. PART I Theaters of Liberation Diego Saglia Iberian Translations: Writing Spain into British Culture, — This essay examines the emergence of Spain its geography, history and culture as an object of increasingly frequent operations of reconstruction, description and inscription in British culture around the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Indeed, this period sees a general rediscovery of Spain and witnesses the publication of a sizeable number of studies about it in the fields of history, archaeology, art history and linguistics, as well as countless travel accounts and fictional, poetic, and dramatic representations.
At the same time, Spain becomes an object of political contention, and the receiver of ideological interventions by the Whig intellectuals and politicians of Holland House and the London Utilitarian circle of Jeremy Bentham. And, as these initial sentences indicate, the pamphlet that follows is a comprehensive archive of radically dismissive images of Spain.
The nature of the country is fully visible to the author, who presents it as immutable and incorrigible, yet also suggests that it may be amended through some radical transformations. A Trip to Spain, p. Stereotypically encoded since the Renaissance, such figurations regularly appeared well into the latter half of the eighteenth century.
First, it indicates the existence of an iconographic repertoire that was basically unchanged and unchallenged from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, a clear sign that British culture did not feel the need to revise and update its image of Spain, its culture and its people.
Secondly, because this archive of images was fundamentally fixed and might be rehearsed ad infinitum, Spain and its culture repeatedly functioned as the inert targets of British discursive interventions, easily available for recurring operations of description and inscription. Melinda C. Yet, the imagery of Spain was immutable not merely because of successful and therefore long-lived literary and theatrical formulas that posited a geocultural archive as an intrinsically permanent construct.
This fixed iconography also rested on the fact that the Kingdom of Spain was an enemy of England and then Great Britain for much of the period between the Elizabethan age and the reign of George III. The country appears as a densely overwritten terrain that may be read and interpreted through a multiplicity of fictional transcriptions. Travels through Spain, in the years and , in which several monuments of Roman and Moorish architecture are illustrated by accurate drawings taken on the spot London: P.
Elmsly, , pp. Iberian Translations 29 not as effective as they seemed in cutting off the Iberian kingdom from the rest of Europe. Nonetheless, they served to confirm a general idea of Spain as a place where ignorance and superstition were rife, a country refusing to fall into line with the forces of progress and modernization typical of Western Europe and Britain in particular. In particular, definitions of Spain as self-enclosed and incurious about neighbouring cultures fed into Enlightenment views of Spain as a world apart, unknown and not worth knowing.
On the leyenda negra see, for instance, William S. The Letters of Samuel Johnson, ed. Chapman, 3 vols Oxford: Clarendon Press, , I, p. However close in geographical terms, Spain is paradoxically less well known than other, further-flung, corners of the world. Costard, , p. Davies and L. Davies, , I, pp. Henry Swinburne, Travels through Spain, p.
Iberian Translations 31 be known. In all these cases, since it cannot be fully and satisfactorily anatomized and explained, Spain evades contemporary patterns of cultural decoding and construction. Having been translated once and for all, it seems to challenge all further attempts at its reinterpretation and reconstruction. Indeed, the country was then untranslated also because it was still largely uncharted territory. Though flawed by several inaccuracies, this was the only available map of the entire country and provided the basis for the maps of Spain published by Chanlaire and Mentelle in France and John Stockdale in England Between the s and , official Spanish bodies launched a number of scientific projects in conjunction with foreign academies to establish a reliable general map of Spain, but all of these proposals came to nothing.
As a terrain without appropriate cartographic translation, it remained an opaque zone seemingly immune to the widespread tendency to 18 19 For a general, though rather sketchy, overview of British Hispanism, see J. More generally, see the excellent catalogue for the exhibition Madrid Guerra y territorio.
Attempts at filling the gaps of imprecise and partial information on the part of foreign commentators began to multiply in the second half of the eighteenth century, especially through a significant rise in the number of foreign travellers to Spain and the publication of their accounts.
Thus, among the travellers that went to Spain before or during the Peninsular War, there were merchants and commercial agents such as William Jacob, Robert Semple or Sir John Bowring; professional travel writers such as Sir John Carr, and gentlemen of independent means such as Henry Swinburne and John Talbot Dillon, the latter a widely respected authority on Spain, its language and culture in mid- to late eighteenth-century England; informers such as Alexander Jardine, who first visited Spain in to gather 20 21 22 23 On eighteenth-century discourses and practices of cartography, see Matthew H.
Livingstone and Charles W. Withers Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , pp. Taken collectively, their accounts set in motion a process of geocultural construction based on the imposition of external interpretative patterns, a process not unlike many contemporaneous acts of cultural colonization of the East and other non-European geographies. Therefore, to go back to the language of mapping, we may say that British observers began to chart Spain in ways that sought to make up for the gaps, omissions and misleading simplifications of the past, and thus return it to the complexity of an intricate geocultural palimpsest.
That Romantic-period culture should describe and inscribe Spain as a variety of interlocked historical, social, political, economic, ethnic or linguistic dimensions rests precisely on this many-sided operation of re dis covery and re construction. Its result was that Spain was effectively re-translated and reformulated into an updated geocultural archive. With a Sketch Imagining Spain, p. Eighteenth-century Spanish scholarship had produced a number of excellent works on national belles lettres, but, characteristically for this period, there had been no attempt at creating a comprehensive chronological narrative of this tradition.
Ancient Spanish Ballads, Historical and Romantic, trans. Lockhart Edinburgh: W. Blackwood; London: T. Cadell, , p. Ancient Spanish Ballads, p. If the Scottish scholar could find the belatedness of Spanish culture appealing because of its traditionalism and conservatism, it was not acceptable in terms of scientific and scholarly backwardness. A mixture of scholarly accuracy, passionate tones and urbane argumentation, this truly monumental account relies on, and quotes extensively from, the entire repertoire of European scholarship on Spanish history and literature.
The preface, in particular, traces a map of contemporary Hispanism by detailing the network of international contacts which grounds the entire project. See David T. Prescott, one of his closest friends and, like him, a Harvard professor and a close friend of Gayangos. Even a quick glance at the sources Ticknor employs in the first volume on early medieval literature reveals that his literary-historical reconstruction draws on a rich archive of Spanish scholarship from the eighteenth century to the present.
Among these were the fact that Spanish literature was relatively uncharted in its entirety, the desire to employ Spain as a kind of parable of the development and decline of national cultures, and finally the intention to write a literary history aimed both at specialists and at general readers, so that it might prove a useful lesson for everyone.
The first, in particular, became a university textbook when it was made compulsory reading in the syllabuses 38 See David B. Hart, Jr. Therefore, alongside national ventures, foreign translations and systematizations of Spanish culture continued to operate within Spain, which consequently came to see itself through the images created by other national traditions, a process that was not unusual in the literature and culture of the Romantic period.
As is well known, these figures played a crucial role as cultural mediators who, from the safe haven of Britain, wrote about Spain in English and Spanish, turning their country into a space of cultural and ideological intervention that falls within the scope of translation as this essay defines it. Yet it was also in another sense that their cultural operations took two different, though interrelated, directions.
Alberich also lists translations of Spanish works and Spanish-language books published in Britain. Kitson Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. Iberian Translations 41 reinventions of the Iberian country and its culture that, especially after the outbreak of the Peninsular War in , started to flood the British literary market. Together, the poem and its annotations make plain how Romantic-period translations of Spain have transformed it from a two-dimensional reality caught up in an unchanging present into a full-blown, many-sided and contradictory, cultural geography.
For purposes of my analysis, I start the player with a bet of one unit with a goal of winning one unit. Here is putting the whole system more formally. The player shall define his winning goal and bankroll size. The player's "unit size" shall be equal to his winning goal.
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General Comments An interesting facet of the d'Alembert is it doesn't matter in what order wins and losses are, like flat betting. Comments 0 comment Introduction An encyclopedie ought to provide, precise and comprehensive information on subject, words or terms it explains.
With large work, the encyclopaedia has a significant impact as it diverts its leaders to see things in another perspective rather than the conventional notation. This analysis uses two terms from the encyclopaedia, education and political authority, to compare them with how other scholars define the same terms and make a judgement on who is right. Definition of Education The encyclopaedia defines education as the caring given to the children in regarding feeding, instructing and raising the child.
This definition is confusing education with the parenting. Secondly, the definition does not recognize education as continues reliable process encyclopaedia should guide the learner to get a deep understanding of the issue it is addressing. The gathered information in this useful collection should, therefore, enable the reader to get the clear mental picture of the issue at hand. Regardless of the expertly of the audience, he should get the meaning of the terms without questioning.
This evidence makes the collection more ambiguous rather than reflecting what is acceptable. Definition of Political Authority Another term with a whelming explanation but still raising an eyebrow in this encyclopaedia is the Political authority. The encyclopaedia denies the reasoning that political authority can be due to nature but insists that the subject contract the person in authority and consent to the situation either willingly or by the fact that he cannot resist at that time.
The following definition assumes that nature has power in awarding the government this power.
No negamos a este autor la justicia debida. Mucho se ha escrito sobre las ciencias. Hubiera sido preferible escribir menos pero escribir mejor. Entre todos los escritores, dimos la preferencia aquellos que son reconocidos generalmente como los mejores. Esta ha sido la base de los principios de nuestra obra. Sigamos informando acerca de nuestra obra. No hemos ahorrado ni prodigado las explicaciones. Comments 0 comment Introduction An encyclopedie ought to provide, precise and comprehensive information on subject, words or terms it explains.
With large work, the encyclopaedia has a significant impact as it diverts its leaders to see things in another perspective rather than the conventional notation. This analysis uses two terms from the encyclopaedia, education and political authority, to compare them with how other scholars define the same terms and make a judgement on who is right.
Definition of Education The encyclopaedia defines education as the caring given to the children in regarding feeding, instructing and raising the child. This definition is confusing education with the parenting. Secondly, the definition does not recognize education as continues reliable process encyclopaedia should guide the learner to get a deep understanding of the issue it is addressing.
The gathered information in this useful collection should, therefore, enable the reader to get the clear mental picture of the issue at hand. Regardless of the expertly of the audience, he should get the meaning of the terms without questioning. This evidence makes the collection more ambiguous rather than reflecting what is acceptable.
Definition of Political Authority Another term with a whelming explanation but still raising an eyebrow in this encyclopaedia is the Political authority. The encyclopaedia denies the reasoning that political authority can be due to nature but insists that the subject contract the person in authority and consent to the situation either willingly or by the fact that he cannot resist at that time. The following definition assumes that nature has power in awarding the government this power.